> Let us say, for the sake of simplicity, a fence or gate erected across a road. The more modern type of reformer goes gaily up to it and says, 'I don't see the use of this; let us clear it away.' To which the more intelligent type of reformer will do well to answer: 'If you don't see the use of it, I certainly won't let you clear it away. Go away and think. Then, when you can come back and tell me that you do see the use of it, I may allow you to destroy it.'
> -- Wikipedia - Chesterton's fence
UIOP:DEFINE-PACKAGE is the part of UIOP that I personally use the most - it fills (IMO) the biggest hole in the Common Lisp package system, which is CLHS Macro DEFPACKAGE saying:
> If the new definition is at variance with the current state of that package, the consequences are undefined; (...)
This means that removing an export from a
DEFPACKAGE can cause your implementation to wag a finger at you, and also ignore your attempt at removing it.
CL-USER> (defpackage #:foo (:use) (:export #:bar))
CL-USER> (defpackage #:foo (:use) (:export))
;; WARNING: FOO also exports the following symbols:
;; See also:
;; The ANSI Standard, Macro DEFPACKAGE
;; The SBCL Manual, Variable *ON-PACKAGE-VARIANCE*
CL-USER> (loop for sym being the external-symbols of :foo
The solution is to manually call
FOO::BAR, at which point SBCL will calm down and let you evaluate the second
DEFPACKAGE form in peace.
DEFINE-PACKAGE, in the same situation, will do "the right thing" (read: the thing I personally expect it to) and adjust the package's export list to be consistent with the one provided to it.
CL-USER> (uiop:define-package #:foo (:use) (:export #:bar))
CL-USER> (uiop:define-package #:foo (:use) (:export))
CL-USER> (loop for sym being the external-symbols of :foo
There's plenty of other useful options, such as
:REEXPORT and all, but there's one of them that looks... A bit off.
:UNINTERN is specified to call
CL:UNINTERN on some symbols when the package is defined.
Hold up, wait a second, though. Uninterning symbols? During package definition?
When a package is defined for the first time, there are no symbols to unintern. This means that this option is only useful when a package already exists, and therefore
UIOP:DEFINE-PACKAGE is used to redefine it.
This, and uninterning cannot be used to achieve "partial
:use", that is, to remove symbols from packages that are
:used in the current package in order to only "use a part of" this other package. That simply isn't doable in Common Lisp -
:use imports all of the symbols exported by another package, except those that are explicitly
So, again, what's the point? Scroll down only if you'd like the mystery to be spoiled to you.
Let's assume a very simple situation:
We have a single package which exports a single symbol. That package was created by some software which we use, and the symbol
BAR:SYMBOL is useful to us in some way.
And then, while our Lisp image is still running, we'd like to upgrade this software to a new version. That is, we'd like to load a new version of that software and disregard the old one. In the new version of our software, the package structure looks like this:
It seems that the symbol named
SYMBOL was moved into another package, possibly because that is where the implementation of that symbol has been moved to. Oh well, looks understandable from a software architecture point of view!
...and then trying to load the upgraded version will fail at the very beginning. Worse - it might fail, since we have just stepped into undefined behavior area, as stated in the beginning of this post.
DEFPACKAGE FOO will be evaluated without any problem, but a keen eye will notice an error which will be signaled the moment we evaluate
DEFPACKAGE BAR. The currently existing package contains its own version of the symbol named
SYMBOL, whereas the new requirement is to
:USE the package
FOO, which has its own symbol named
SYMBOL - a classic package name conflict.
What is the producer of this piece of software to do now in order to ensure a smooth transition?
One way forward is to
DELETE-PACKAGE before moving on with the upgrade, but that's pretty explosive - if
BAR exported any other symbols, naming e.g. class definitions, then this means trouble for us. Another way forward is to manually call
UNINTERN before calling
DEFPACKAGE, but only if the package already exists - and that is a little bit messy.
And this is exactly the problem that is meant to be solved by
UIOP:DEFINE-PACKAGE. In particular, this utility is capable of automatically changing the structure of the underlying package to resolve conflicts in favor of the newly added symbols. We can simply use it as a drop-in replacement for
DEFPACKAGE, like this:
That change allows this code to compile and load without errors. In particular, we can verify that
BAR:SYMBOL correctly resolves to the new symbol from package
So, that's one upgrading problem less, solved by using
UIOP:DEFINE-PACKAGE instead of
...but, uh, what about
DEFINE-PACKAGE :UNINTERN? That's still not the end of the story.
Edge case time
Let us assume that you are the developer of Lisp software who is working on it and you are testing the scenario in which you upgrade one version of software to another. The technique described above works well with regard to upgrading software, but let's say that your package definition looked like this:
(:intern #:some #:totally-random #:stuff))
And you want to replace it with the following:
(:intern #:some #:totally-randomized #:stuff))
The explanation is that
TOTALLY-RANDOM was a symbol that was useful (and used) in the previous version of software, but the new version uses something better, which also has a better name -
And all is fine and well, until you go into your REPL and see this:
The syntax completion is suggesting the old symbol even though it no longer bears any meaning. It means that you, as the programmer, need to hit the
↓ key to navigate downwards and select the proper symbol, which can annoy you to no avail. That's a pet peeve.
But it also means that you have the possibility of introducing bugs into the system by using the old version of a function - or, worse, breaking the build by using a symbol that is only present on systems upgraded from the old version and not ones which had the new version loaded start from scratch.
That's actually scary.
And that's the concrete edge case solved by
Using this fixes the syntax completion:
:UNINTERN option inside
DEFINE-PACKAGE will either be a no-op (if the symbol doesn't exist, e.g. when defining the package from scratch) or automatically unintern the old symbol from the system (if it exists, e.g. when upgrading the package to a newer version).
In particular, the second option will happen even if the current shape of the source code no longer has any other mentions of it and even if this
:UNINTERN call seems to make no sense.
In this context,
:UNINTERN is something protecting the programmer from a danger that may no longer be relevant for current versions of the software, but was once something that the programmer considered important enough to remove during a software upgrade. This
:UNINTERN should stay in the source code for however long it is supported to make upgrades from the versions of software which still used this symbol to the current version.
Hell of an edge case, eh? As always, it's an edge case until you hit it and need a tool for solving it - and
:UNINTERN fits that description pretty damn well.
And let's not think about the scenario where your software needs to reintroduce that symbol later on, possibly for different purposes... and support all the upgrade paths along the way.
This, and I heard that it's useful when developing, especially with one-package-per-file style (which also includes ASDF's package-inferred systems); I heard that it's more convenient to jump to the top of the file, add a
(:UNINTERN #:FOO) clause to the
UIOP:DEFINE-PACKAGE there, reevaluate the form, remove the clause, and keep on hacking, rather than change Emacs buffers in order to jump into the REPL and evaluate a
(UNINTERN '#:FOO) form there.
Personally, though, I don't share the sentiment - I can use
C-↑ anywhere in the file to go out of whatever form my cursor is in, write a
C-c C-c that form to get Slime to evaluate it, and then delete the form and continue hacking.
:UNINTERN option is useful in the rare and obscure situations when all of the following are true:
- you are hot-patching an existing Lisp image and do not want to restart it,
- you need to redefine a package (possibly as a part of a software upgrade),
- you need to ensure that, after such a redefinition, a symbol with a given name is not internal in a given package.
This is useful e.g. for avoiding invalid syntax completions inside your Lisp image.
Thanks to Robert Goldman and Phoebe Goldman for helping me solve the mystery of
Thanks to Francis St-Amour for his long and painful review of this post.
Thanks to Catie from
#lispcafe on Libera Chat and Gnuxie for shorter, less painful reviews of this post.